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Important Legal Latin Words ✔

Explore our comprehensive collection of Latin terms commonly used in law, providing clarity and understanding for legal professionals and enthusiasts alike.

  1. Ø a fortiori - With stronger reason

  2. Ø a mensa et thoro - From table and bed (a legal term referring to a separation that does not dissolve the marriage)

  3. Ø a posteriori - From what comes after (a method of reasoning from effect to cause)

  4. Ø a priori - From what comes before (a method of reasoning from cause to effect)

  5. Ø a quo - From which (point or place)

  6. Ø ab extra - From outside (external to a thing or concept)

  7. Ø ab initio - From the beginning (from the outset)

  8. Ø absque hoc - Without this (omitting this)

  9. Ø Actio non datur non damnificato - Action is not given to one not injured (legal principle that one must suffer injury to have standing to sue)

  10. Ø Actus legis nemini facit injurium - The act of the law does injury to no one (a legal principle stating that compliance with the law does not cause harm)

  11. Ø Actus non facit reum, nisi mens sit rea - An act does not make one guilty, unless the mind is also guilty (a legal principle stating that intent is necessary for criminal liability)

  12. Ø actus reus - Guilty act (the physical act that constitutes a crime)

  13. Ø ad coelum - To the heavens (a legal concept related to property ownership extending to the sky above)

  14. Ø ad colligenda bona - For collecting goods (a legal term related to the collection of assets)

  15. Ø ad hoc - For this purpose (created or done for a particular purpose)

  16. Ø ad hominem - To the person (directed against a person rather than their argument)

  17. Ø ad idem - To the same thing (agreement in understanding)

  18. Ø ad infinitum - To infinity (without limit)

  19. Ø ad litem - For the suit (appointed or designated for the duration of a legal action)

  20. Ø ad quod damnum - To what damage (inquiry into the extent of harm)

  21. Ø ad valorem - According to value (a tax or duty based on the assessed value of goods)

  22. Ø adjournment sine die - Adjournment without a day (postponement without setting a future date)

  23. Ø affidavit - Sworn statement (a written statement confirmed by oath or affirmation)

  24. Ø allocatur - It is allowed (a judicial order allowing a claim)

  25. Ø alter ego - Other self (someone's very close and trusted friend)

  26. Ø Alteri stipulari nemo potest - No one can stipulate for another (a principle that only parties to a contract can enforce it)

  27. Ø amicus curiae - Friend of the court (a person who advises the court in a legal case)

  28. Ø animus contrahendi - Intention to contract (the intent to enter into a legally binding agreement)

  29. Ø animus manendi - Intention to remain (the intent to stay in a particular place)

  30. Ø animus nocendi - Intention to harm (the intent to cause injury)

  31. Ø animus possidendi - Intention to possess (the intent to exercise control over property)

  32. Ø animus revertendi - Intention to return (the intent to come back to a place)

  33. Ø animus testandi - Intention to make a will (the intent to create a legal document disposing of one's property after death)

  34. Ø ante - Before (prior to)

  35. Ø (in) arguendo - For the sake of argument (used in legal discourse to denote a proposition set forth for discussion)

  36. Ø bona fide - In good faith (honestly or sincerely)

  37. Ø bona vacantia - Vacant goods (property without an owner)

  38. Ø cadit quaestio - The question falls (the matter is settled)

  39. Ø casus belli - Cause of war (an event or action that justifies a declaration of war)

  40. Ø caveat - Let him beware (a warning)

  41. Ø caveat emptor - Let the buyer beware (principle that the buyer is responsible for checking the quality and suitability of goods before purchase)

  42. Ø certiorari - To be made more certain (a writ seeking judicial review)

  43. Ø cessante ratione legis cessat ipsa lex - The reason for the law ceasing, the law itself ceases (a legal maxim stating that laws become obsolete when the reasons for their enactment no longer exist)

  44. Ø ceteris paribus - All other things being equal (assuming that all other relevant factors remain unchanged)

  45. Ø compos mentis - Of sound mind (mentally competent)

  46. Ø condicio sine qua non - Condition without which not (an essential condition)

  47. Ø consensus ad idem - Agreement to the same thing (mutual agreement)

  48. Ø contra - Against (opposite or contrary to)

  49. Ø contra legem - Against the law (contrary to the law)

  50. Ø contradictio in adjecto - Contradiction in terms (a statement that contradicts itself)

  51. Ø contra proferentem - Against the one who makes the statement (a rule of construction holding that ambiguities in a contract are construed against the party who drafted it)

  52. Ø coram non judice - Before one not a judge (in the presence of someone who is not a judge)

  53. Ø corpus delicti - Body of the crime (the material substance on which a crime has been committed)

  54. Ø corpus juris - Body of the law (the entire body of laws)

  55. Ø corpus juris civilis - Body of civil law (the body of Roman civil law collected by Justinian)

  56. Ø corpus juris gentium - Body of the law of nations (the body of international law)

  57. Ø corpus juris secundum - Body of the law as it exists (a comprehensive legal encyclopedia)

  58. Ø crimen falsi - Crime of falsification (a crime involving dishonesty or deceit)

  59. Ø cui bono - To whose benefit (used to suggest that the person who benefits from a crime is likely the perpetrator)

  60. Ø curia advisari vult - The court wishes to be advised (a phrase indicating that the court is considering the matter)

  61. Ø de bonis asportatis - Concerning goods carried away (related to the theft or removal of goods)

  62. Ø debellatio - Subjugation (the act of conquering or subduing)

  63. Ø de bonis non administratis - Concerning goods not administered (related to the assets of a deceased person not yet distributed)

  64. Ø de die in diem - From day to day (on a daily basis)

  65. Ø de facto - From the fact (in reality)

  66. Ø de futuro - Concerning the future

  67. Ø de integro - Anew, afresh

  68. Ø de jure - By law, legally

  69. Ø de lege ferenda - Concerning the law as it should be

  70. Ø de lege lata - Concerning the law as it is

  71. Ø de minimis - About insignificant things

  72. Ø de minimis non curat lex - The law does not concern itself with trifles

  73. Ø de novo - Anew, from the beginning

  74. Ø deorum injuriae diis curae - Offenses to the gods are the concern of the gods

  75. Ø dictum - Statement, declaration

  76. Ø doli incapax - Incapable of deceit (referring to someone legally incapable of committing fraud)

  77. Ø dolus bonus - Good intent, good faith

  78. Ø dolus malus - Bad intent, malicious intent

  79. Ø dolus specialis - Specific intent (a legal term referring to a specific fraudulent purpose)

  80. Ø domitae naturae - Of tamed nature (referring to animals that have been domesticated)

  81. Ø donatio mortis causa - Gift in contemplation of death (a gift made in anticipation of one's death)

  82. Ø dramatis personae - Characters of the drama (referring to the parties involved in a legal case)

  83. Ø duces tecum - You shall bring with you (a legal order to produce specified documents or evidence)

  84. Ø ejusdem generis - Of the same kind (a legal principle stating that when a list of specific items is followed by more general wording, the general wording should be interpreted to include only items of the same kind as those specifically listed)

  85. Ø eo nomine - By that name (referring to something being referred to by a specific name)

  86. Ø erga omnes - Toward all (referring to legal rights or obligations that apply universally)

  87. Ø ergo - Therefore, consequently

  88. Ø erratum - Error (referring to a mistake in a legal document)

  89. Ø et al. - And others (abbreviated form used to indicate additional persons or things)

  90. Ø et cetera - And the rest, and so forth

  91. Ø et seq. - And the following (used in legal citations to indicate that the subsequent pages or sections of a document are also relevant)

  92. Ø et uxor - And wife (referring to a husband and his wife)

  93. Ø et vir - And husband (referring to a wife and her husband)

  94. Ø ex aequo et bono - According to what is fair and good (a legal principle allowing a decision to be made based on fairness and equity rather than strict law)

  95. Ø ex ante - From before (referring to something considered before an event)

  96. Ø ex cathedra - With authority (referring to a statement made with authority, especially by someone in a position of power or expertise)

  97. Ø ex concessis - By what has been granted (referring to a conclusion based on agreed-upon premises)

  98. Ø ex delicto - From a wrong (referring to liability arising from a wrongful act)

  99. Ø ex demissione - From demise (referring to a lease or grant)

  100. Ø Ex dolo malo non oritur actio - No action arises from fraud (a legal principle stating that a claim cannot arise from one's own fraud)

  101. Ø ex facie - On the face of it (referring to something evident from the first view)

  102. Ø ex fida bona - From good faith (referring to something done in good faith)

  103. Ø ex gratia - From grace (referring to something done voluntarily, out of kindness)

  104. Ø ex officio - By virtue of office (referring to something done as a result of one's official position)

  105. Ø ex parte - From one party (referring to legal proceedings involving only one party)

  106. Ø ex post - After the fact (referring to something considered after an event)

  107. Ø ex post facto - After the fact (retroactively, especially in reference to laws)

  108. Ø ex post facto law - Law enacted after the fact (a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences of actions)

  109. Ø ex proprio motu - On one's own motion (referring to something done voluntarily)

  110. Ø ex rel - On behalf of (referring to legal proceedings brought by a person acting on behalf of another)

  111. Ø ex tempore - On the spur of the moment (referring to something done spontaneously or without preparation)

  112. Ø exempli gratia - For example, for instance

  113. Ø ex tunc - From then (referring to something being effective from a specified earlier time)

  114. Ø Ex turpi causa non oritur actio - No action arises from an immoral cause (a legal principle stating that one cannot seek relief from a court if their claim arises from an illegal or immoral act)

  115. Ø ex nunc - From now (referring to something being effective from a specified later time)

  116. Ø extant - Existing, still in existence

  117. Ø facio ut facias - I do that you may do (referring to a legal principle where one party performs an act with the expectation that the other party will reciprocate)

  118. Ø factum - A deed, an act

  119. Ø favor contractus - Favorable to the contract (a legal principle favoring the enforcement of contracts)

  120. Ø felo de se - Felon of himself (a suicide; historically, a person who commits suicide was considered a felon)

  121. Ø ferae naturae - Of wild nature (referring to wild animals)

  122. Ø fiat - Let it be done (an order or decree)

  123. Ø fieri facias - That you cause to be done (a writ of execution ordering a sheriff to seize and sell the property of a judgment debtor)

  124. Ø fortis attachiamentum, validior praesumptionem - Strong attachment creates a stronger presumption (a legal principle stating that a strong attachment to property creates a stronger presumption of ownership)

  125. Ø forum non conveniens - Inconvenient forum (a legal doctrine allowing a court to dismiss a case if another court is more appropriate for adjudication)

  126. Ø fumus boni iuris - Smoke of good law (a legal term referring to a strong appearance of a legal right)

  127. Ø functus officio - Having discharged one's duty (referring to a person who has fulfilled their role and no longer has authority)

  128. Ø gravamen - Burden, grievance (a legal term referring to the essential point of a complaint or charge)

  129. Ø guardian ad litem - Guardian for the suit (a person appointed by a court to represent the interests of a minor or incapacitated person in legal proceedings)

  130. Ø habeas corpus - You shall have the body (a legal action requiring a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court, especially to secure the person's release unless lawful grounds are shown for their detention)

  131. Ø hostis humani generis - Enemy of mankind (a legal term referring to pirates and other criminals regarded as enemies of all nations)

  132. Ø imprimatur - Let it be printed (an official license to print or publish a book)

  133. Ø in absentia - In absence (proceedings taking place in the absence of a party)

  134. Ø in articulo mortis - At the point of death (referring to something happening at the moment of death)

  135. Ø in camera - In chambers (referring to a private hearing in a judge's chambers)

  136. Ø in curia - In court (referring to something taking place in a court of law)

  137. Ø in esse - In being (existing)

  138. Ø in extenso - In full (completely)

  139. Ø in extremis - In extreme circumstances (referring to something happening at the point of death or under extreme conditions)

  140. Ø in flagrante delicto - In the heat of the offense (referring to someone being caught in the act of committing an offense)

  141. Ø in forma pauperis - In the form of a pauper (allowing a person to proceed with a legal action without paying court fees or costs because of indigence)

  142. Ø in futuro - In the future (referring to something occurring in the future)

  143. Ø in haec verba - In these words (verbatim)

  144. Ø in limine - On the threshold (referring to a legal motion made at the outset of a case)

  145. Ø in loco parentis - In the place of a parent (referring to someone who assumes the responsibilities of a parent)

  146. Ø in mitius - In the milder (referring to a more lenient interpretation or application of the law)

  147. Ø in omnibus - In all things (referring to something being applicable universally)

  148. Ø in pari delicto - In equal fault (referring to a situation where both parties are equally at fault)

  149. Ø in pari materia - In similar matter (referring to statutes or legal provisions dealing with similar subject matter)

  150. Ø in personam - Against the person (referring to legal actions directed against a specific person)

  151. Ø in pleno - In full (referring to a full session of a court)

  152. Ø in propria persona - In one's own person (referring to someone representing themselves in a legal proceeding)

  153. Ø in re - In the matter of (referring to legal proceedings concerning a specific matter or thing)

  154. Ø in rem - Against the thing (referring to legal actions directed against property rather than a person)

  155. Ø in situ - In its place (referring to something being in its original or natural position)

  156. Ø in terrorem - As a warning (referring to a provision in a will intended to discourage challenges to the will)

  157. Ø in terrorem clause - A clause intended to discourage (a provision in a legal document intended to deter certain actions)

  158. Ø in toto - In total (completely)

  159. Ø indicia - Signs, indications (evidence)

  160. Ø infra - Below, beneath (referring to something mentioned later in a text)

  161. Ø iniuria sine damno - Injury without damage (a legal principle stating that injury alone, without resulting damage, does not give rise to a legal claim)

  162. Ø innuendo - By hinting (referring to a hint or insinuation, especially in a legal context)

  163. Ø inter alia - Among other things (referring to something being part of a list of other things)

  164. Ø inter rusticos - Among country people (referring to a legal principle applied in rural communities)

  165. Ø inter se - Among themselves (referring to legal relations between parties)

  166. Ø inter vivos - Between the living (referring to transactions or agreements made between living persons)

  167. Ø intra - Within (inside)

  168. Ø intra fauces terrae - Within the jaws of the earth (referring to underground or mineral rights)

  169. Ø intra legem - Within the law (in compliance with the law)

  170. Ø intra vires - Within the powers (referring to actions within one's legal authority)

  171. Ø ipse dixit - He himself said it (referring to an unsupported assertion)

  172. Ø ipsissima verba - The very words (verbatim)

  173. Ø ipso facto - By the fact itself (automatically)

  174. Ø ipso jure - By the law itself (by operation of law)

  175. Ø ius civile vigilantibus scriptum est - The civil law is written for the vigilant (a legal maxim indicating that individuals must be vigilant in protecting their legal rights)

  176. Ø jurat - He swears (a person who takes an oath)

  177. Ø juris privati - Of private law (pertaining to private rights and obligations)

  178. Ø jus - Law, right (legal right or authority)

  179. Ø jus accrescendi - Right of survivorship (the right of surviving joint tenants to acquire the interest of a deceased joint tenant)

  180. Ø jus ad bellum - Right to war (referring to the justification for engaging in war)

  181. Ø jus civile - Civil law (the body of law governing the rights and obligations of individuals within a society)

  182. Ø jus cogens - Compelling law (peremptory norms of international law that must be obeyed by all states)

  183. Ø jus gentium - Law of nations (principles of law common to all nations)

  184. Ø jus in bello - Law in war (legal principles governing conduct during war)

  185. Ø jus inter gentes - Law between nations (international law)

  186. Ø jus legationis - Law of embassies (the body of law governing diplomatic relations)

  187. Ø jus naturale - Natural law (principles of law derived from nature and reason)

  188. Ø jus primae noctis - Right of the first night (a purported legal right allowing a lord or ruler to have sexual relations with subordinate women on their wedding night)

  189. Ø jus sanguinis - Right of blood (the principle of acquiring citizenship through descent from a citizen parent)

  190. Ø jus soli - Right of the soil (the principle of acquiring citizenship by being born in a particular territory)

  191. Ø jus tertii - Right of a third party (a legal principle referring to the rights of a third party in relation to a contract or dispute)

  192. Ø lacuna - Gap, deficiency (a missing part or element in a legal document or argument)

  193. Ø lex communis - Common law (the body of law derived from judicial decisions and custom)

  194. Ø lex fori - Law of the forum (the law applied by a court in determining legal rights and obligations)

  195. Ø lex lata - Law as enacted (existing law)

  196. Ø lex loci - Law of the place (the law of the jurisdiction where an event occurs)

  197. Ø lex scripta - Written law (statutory law)

  198. Ø liberum veto - Free veto (a political mechanism allowing one member to block a decision in a legislative body)

  199. Ø lingua franca - Common language (a language spoken by people who do not have a native language in common)

  200. Ø lis alibi pendens - Suit pending elsewhere (a legal principle preventing simultaneous litigation of the same matter in different jurisdictions)

  201. Ø lis pendens - Pending lawsuit (a legal principle referring to a lawsuit that is ongoing and undecided)

  202. Ø locus - Place, location (a legal term referring to a place or location)

  203. Ø locus delicti - Place of the offense (the location where a crime or tort occurred)

  204. Ø locus in quo - Place in which (the place where an event occurred)

  205. Ø locus poenitentiae - Place of repentance (an opportunity to retract or correct a decision before it is too late)

  206. Ø locus standi - Standing (the legal right to bring a lawsuit or make an appeal)

  207. Ø mala fide - In bad faith (acting with dishonest or fraudulent intentions)

  208. Ø malum in se - Evil in itself (a wrongful act that is inherently immoral)

  209. Ø malum prohibitum - Wrong because prohibited (an act that is wrongful only because it is prohibited by law)

  210. Ø mandamus - We command (a writ issued by a court ordering a public official to perform a specific act)

  211. Ø mare clausum - Closed sea (the concept of exclusive maritime jurisdiction asserted by a state over its territorial waters)

  212. Ø mare liberum - Free sea (the concept of freedom of the seas, allowing unrestricted navigation)

  213. Ø mea culpa - My fault (an admission of guilt or responsibility)

  214. Ø mens rea - Guilty mind (the mental element of a crime; criminal intent)

  215. Ø modus operandi - Method of operating (the characteristic manner of operating or functioning)

  216. Ø mortis causa - Because of death (referring to transfers of property occurring upon death)

  217. Ø mos pro lege - Custom as law (the principle that custom can have the force of law)

  218. Ø motion in limine - Motion at the threshold (a motion made at the outset of a trial to exclude certain evidence)

  219. Ø mutatis mutandis - With necessary changes (referring to a legal principle applied with appropriate alterations)

  220. Ø ne exeat - Let him not depart (a court order preventing someone from leaving the jurisdiction)

  221. Ø Nemo dat quod non habet - No one gives what they do not have (a legal principle stating that one cannot transfer better title than they possess)

  222. Ø Nemo debet bis vexari (pro una et eadem causa) - No one ought to be twice vexed (for the same cause) (a legal principle preventing double jeopardy)

  223. Ø Nemo iudex in causa sua - No one should be a judge in their own case.

  224. Ø Nemo potest dare quod suum non est - No one can give what is not theirs.

  225. Ø Nemo potest esse tenens et dominus - No one can be both tenant and landlord.

  226. Ø Nemo potest mutare consilium suum in alterius iniuriam - No one can change their mind to the injury of another.

  227. Ø Nemo potest nisi quod de jure potest - No one can do anything unless they have the legal right to do so.

  228. Ø Nemo potest praecise cogi ad factum - No one can be precisely compelled to do a deed.

  229. Ø Nemo potest venire contra factum proprium - No one can come against their own previous act.

  230. Ø Nemo potest facere per alium quod per se non potest - No one can do through another what they cannot do themselves.

  231. Ø nihil dicit - He says nothing (a plea in legal proceedings indicating that the defendant neither admits nor denies the charges).

  232. Ø nisi - Unless.

  233. Ø nisi prius - Unless before (a term referring to a jury trial that has been postponed or adjourned to a later date).

  234. Ø nolle prosequi - Unwilling to prosecute (a formal notice of abandonment of further prosecution).

  235. Ø nolo contendere - I do not wish to contend (a plea in a criminal case that does not admit guilt but subjects the defendant to punishment as if a guilty plea had been entered).

  236. Ø non adimpleti contractus - The contract not being fulfilled (referring to a contract that has not been performed).

  237. Ø non compos mentis - Not of sound mind (referring to someone who is mentally incompetent).

  238. Ø non constat - It is not certain (a phrase used in legal contexts when a fact is not established or proved).

  239. Ø non est factum - It is not his deed (a plea in legal proceedings denying the execution of a deed).

  240. Ø non est inventus - He has not been found (a legal term indicating that a person has not been located or found).

  241. Ø non liquet - It is not clear (a phrase used in legal contexts when a matter is not clear or evident).

  242. Ø non obstante verdicto - Notwithstanding the verdict (a term indicating that a judgment or decision is made regardless of the jury's verdict).

  243. Ø novus actus interveniens - A new intervening act (referring to a new act or event that breaks the chain of causation).

  244. Ø noscitur a sociis - It is known by its associates (a principle of statutory interpretation where the meaning of a word is determined by the words around it).

  245. Ø nota bene - Note well (an instruction to pay particular attention to something).

  246. Ø Nullum crimen sine lege - No crime without a law (principle stating that there can be no crime or punishment without a pre-existing law).

  247. Ø Nulla poena sine culpa - No punishment without fault (principle stating that there can be no punishment without fault).

  248. Ø nudum pactum - A naked agreement (referring to an agreement without consideration).

  249. Ø nulla bona - No goods (a legal term indicating that no goods were found belonging to a judgment debtor).

  250. Ø nunc pro tunc - Now for then (a legal term indicating that something is done retroactively).

  251. Ø obiter dictum - A remark by the way (a statement made in passing by a judge in a legal opinion, not directly related to the case at hand).

  252. Ø onus probandi - Burden of proof (the obligation to prove a disputed assertion or allegation in a legal proceeding).

  253. Ø ore tenus - By word of mouth (oral testimony given under oath).

  254. Ø pace - With peace (a term used to express respect or deference when disagreeing with someone).

  255. Ø par delictum - Equal fault (referring to a situation where both parties are equally at fault).

  256. Ø parens patriae - Parent of the nation (the sovereign power or authority of the state to protect persons under legal disability).

  257. Ø pari passu - With equal step (referring to treating all creditors equally).

  258. Ø partus sequitur ventrem - Offspring follows the womb (a legal principle stating that the status of a child follows that of its mother).

  259. Ø pendente lite - Pending litigation (referring to a legal matter that is still undecided or pending before the courts).

  260. Ø per capita - By the head (dividing an estate equally among all individuals).

  261. Ø per contra - On the contrary (indicating a contrasting point of view).

  262. Ø per curiam - By the court (referring to a decision issued by a court as a whole, rather than by an individual judge).

  263. Ø per incuriam - Through lack of care (referring to a judgment or decision made through oversight or carelessness).

  264. Ø per minas - By threats (referring to a contract entered into under duress or coercion).

  265. Ø per proxima amici - Through the closest friend (a term referring to representation in legal proceedings by a close friend).

  266. Ø per quod - Whereby (a term used in pleading to indicate the consequences of an alleged wrongful act).

  267. Ø per se - By itself (referring to something being inherently or by itself).

  268. Ø per stirpes - By roots (a method of distributing an estate where each branch of the family receives an equal share).

  269. Ø periculum in mora - Danger in delay (referring to the risk or danger in delaying action).

  270. Ø persona non grata - Unwelcome person (a diplomatic term referring to a person who is not welcome in a particular country).

  271. Ø posse comitatus - The power of the county (referring to the authority of the county sheriff).

  272. Ø post hoc ergo propter hoc - After this, therefore because of this (a logical fallacy in which one assumes that because one event followed another, the first event caused the second).

  273. Ø post mortem - After death (referring to events or examinations that occur after a person's death).

  274. Ø post mortem auctoris - After the author's death (referring to events or actions occurring after the death of the author).

  275. Ø postliminium - Restoration after captivity (referring to the restoration of rights or property after the return from captivity or foreign occupation).

  276. Ø praetor peregrinus - Praetor of foreigners (a Roman magistrate responsible for administering justice to foreigners).

  277. Ø prima facie - At first sight (referring to evidence that, unless rebutted, is sufficient to prove a particular proposition or fact)

  278. Ø pro bono - For the good (referring to legal services provided voluntarily and without charge, typically for public interest or charitable purposes).

  279. Ø pro bono publico - For the public good (referring to services provided for the benefit of the public without charge).

  280. Ø pro forma - As a matter of form (referring to something done as a formality or for the sake of appearance).

  281. Ø pro hac vice - For this occasion (referring to an attorney admitted to practice in a particular case or jurisdiction for that case only, usually by special permission).

  282. Ø pro per - For oneself (referring to representing oneself in a legal proceeding, also known as "pro se").

  283. Ø pro rata - In proportion (referring to dividing something proportionally, often used in allocating costs or benefits).

  284. Ø pro se - For oneself (referring to representing oneself in a legal proceeding, also known as "pro per").

  285. Ø pro tanto - For so much (referring to something done to a limited extent or to a certain extent).

  286. Ø pro tem - For the time being (referring to someone appointed temporarily to fulfill a role or duty).

  287. Ø pro tempore - For the time being (referring to someone appointed temporarily to fulfill a role or duty).

  288. Ø propria persona - In one's own person (referring to representing oneself in a legal proceeding, similar to "pro se").

  289. Ø qua - In the capacity of (referring to the role or capacity in which something is considered).

  290. Ø quae ipso usu consumuntur - Which are consumed by their very use (referring to items that are meant to be consumed in the normal course of use, such as food or fuel).

  291. Ø quaeritur - It is asked (referring to a legal question or issue that is under consideration).

  292. Ø quaere - Inquire (a command to investigate or inquire).

  293. Ø quantum - How much (referring to the amount or extent of something).

  294. Ø quantum meruit - As much as he has deserved (referring to the amount of compensation deserved for services rendered).

  295. Ø quantum valebant - As much as they were worth (referring to the value of goods or services).

  296. Ø quasi - As if (referring to something that resembles or is similar to something else).

  297. Ø qui tam - Who as well (referring to a legal action brought by an individual on behalf of the government and themselves, typically in cases of fraud).

  298. Ø quid pro quo - Something for something (referring to an exchange of goods or services, typically used in contracts to indicate reciprocal obligations).

  299. Ø quo ante - As it was before (referring to the previous state of affairs).

  300. Ø quo warranto - By what warrant (referring to a legal action to determine a person's right to hold a public office or position).

  301. Ø quoad hoc - As far as this (referring to a matter being considered or relevant only to a specific issue).

  302. Ø R - Rex or Regina (referring to the reigning monarch in legal documents, depending on the gender).

  303. Ø ratio decidendi - The reason for deciding (referring to the legal reasoning or principle upon which a decision is based).

  304. Ø ratio scripta - Written reason (referring to a written explanation or justification).

  305. Ø rationae soli - By reason of the soil (referring to ownership or rights based on land).

  306. Ø rebus sic stantibus - With things thus standing (referring to a principle of international law allowing treaties to be invalidated if there is a fundamental change in circumstances).

  307. Ø reddendo singula singulis - Referring each to each (referring to a rule of interpretation instructing that each word or phrase in a contract should be given its own specific meaning).

  308. Ø res - Thing (referring to a matter or subject of legal concern).

  309. Ø res communis - Common thing (referring to property or resources that are held in common).

  310. Ø res derelictae - Abandoned things (referring to property that has been abandoned by its owner).

  311. Ø res ipsa loquitur - The thing speaks for itself (referring to a doctrine where negligence can be inferred from the nature of an accident or injury).

  312. Ø res gestae - Things done (referring to events or acts forming part of the immediate context or background).

  313. Ø res judicata - A matter adjudged (referring to a legal doctrine barring the re-litigation of issues that have already been decided by a court).

  314. Ø res nova - A new thing (referring to a new or novel legal matter).

  315. Ø res nullius - Nobody's thing (referring to property that is not owned by anyone and is available for appropriation).

  316. Ø res publica - The public thing (referring to the state or commonwealth).

  317. Ø respondeat superior - Let the master answer (referring to a legal doctrine holding an employer or principal liable for the wrongful acts of an employee or agent).

  318. Ø scandalum magnatum - The scandal of the magnates (referring to a legal term for high-profile misconduct or corruption among the powerful).

  319. Ø scienter - Knowingly (referring to knowledge or intent, particularly in cases of fraud).

  320. Ø scire facias - Cause to know (referring to a legal writ requiring a person to show cause why a judgment should not be executed).

  321. Ø scire feci - I caused it to be known (a phrase used to indicate that a writ has been issued).

  322. Ø secundum formam statuti - According to the form of the statute (referring to compliance with statutory requirements)

  323. Ø se defendendo - In self-defense (referring to actions taken to protect oneself from harm).

  324. Ø seriatim - In series (referring to dealing with items or matters one by one in sequence).

  325. Ø sine die - Without a day (referring to an adjournment without specifying a date for reconvening).

  326. Ø sine qua non - Without which not (referring to an essential condition or requirement).

  327. Ø situs - Location or place (often used in the context of the location of property for legal purposes).

  328. Ø stare decisis - To stand by things decided (referring to the principle of precedent, where courts follow previous decisions).

  329. Ø status quo - The existing state of affairs (referring to the current situation or condition).

  330. Ø status quo ante - The state of affairs as it was before (referring to the previous state of affairs).

  331. Ø statu quo - The existing state of affairs (variant spelling of "status quo").

  332. Ø stratum - Layer (often used in the context of geological or social layers).

  333. Ø sua sponte - Of one's own accord (referring to actions taken voluntarily or without external prompting).

  334. Ø sub judice - Under judgment (referring to a matter that is under judicial consideration or before a court).

  335. Ø sub modo - Under a condition (referring to something being subject to a condition or limitation).

  336. Ø sub nomine - Under the name of (referring to something being done or acting under a particular name).

  337. Ø sub silentio - In silence (referring to something done or happening without being openly expressed or acknowledged).

  338. Ø subpoena - Under penalty (referring to a writ requiring a person to appear in court or produce evidence).

  339. Ø subpoena ad testificandum - Under penalty to testify (referring to a subpoena requiring a person to testify as a witness).

  340. Ø subpoena duces tecum - Under penalty to bring with you (referring to a subpoena requiring a person to bring specified documents or evidence to court).

  341. Ø suggestio falsi - Suggestion of falsehood (referring to the act of making a false representation).

  342. Ø sui generis - Of its own kind (referring to something unique or in a class of its own).

  343. Ø sui juris - Of one's own right (referring to someone who is legally competent and not under the control of another).

  344. Ø suo motu - On its own motion (referring to something done voluntarily or at one's own initiative).

  345. Ø supersedeas - Let it be stayed (referring to a writ suspending the enforcement of a judgment or order).

  346. Ø suppressio veri - Suppression of the truth (referring to the act of concealing or withholding the truth).

  347. Ø supra - Above (referring to something mentioned earlier in a text or document).

  348. Ø terra nullius - Nobody's land (referring to territory that has never been subject to the sovereignty of any state or over which any prior sovereign has expressly or implicitly relinquished sovereignty).

  349. Ø trial de novo - A trial anew (referring to a new trial conducted as if no previous trial had taken place).

  350. Ø trinoda necessitas - Threefold necessity (referring historically to the obligations of providing military service, repairing bridges and roads, and administering justice).

  351. Ø uberrima fides - Utmost good faith (referring to the highest standard of honesty and integrity in contractual or fiduciary relationships).

  352. Ø ubi eadem ratio, ibi idem jus - Where there is the same reason, there is the same law (referring to the legal principle that similar circumstances should be governed by the same legal rule).

  353. Ø ultra vires - Beyond the powers (referring to acts done by an entity that exceed the powers granted to it by law or its constitution).

  354. Ø universitas personarum - A community of persons (referring to a group or body of individuals considered collectively).

  355. Ø universitas rerum - A community of things (referring to a collection or aggregation of things or objects considered as a whole).

  356. Ø uno flatu - With one breath (referring to something done or happening simultaneously or without interruption).

  357. Ø uti possidetis - As you possess (referring to the legal principle that parties to a dispute may maintain possession of property until the dispute is resolved).

  358. Ø uxor - Wife (referring to a married woman).

  359. Ø vel non - Or not (used to indicate an alternative).

  360. Ø veto - I forbid (referring to the power to reject or prohibit a decision or proposal).

  361. Ø vice versa - The other way around (referring to a situation where the positions are reversed or the roles are exchanged).

  362. Ø vide - See (used to direct attention to a particular point or passage).

  363. Ø videlicet - Namely (used to introduce examples or specific instances).

  364. Ø viz. - Namely (an abbreviation for "videlicet", used to introduce examples or specific instances).

  365. Ø vigilantibus non dormientibus iura subveniunt - The law assists those who are vigilant, not those who sleep (referring to the importance of being diligent and proactive in protecting one's rights).